Russian version

Classification of money forms on the basis of cash non-cash

Let us go back to the issue of correlation of terms money, currency, cash and non-cash.

Money, i.e. property goods which function as a means of circulation, a measure of cost and a means of accumulation (preservation of cost), in Russian public practice are divided into cash and non-cash. While utilizing such terminology, we must make sure it is clearly defined.

If we define as cash certain forms which have object content to such a measure that a man is able to hold them (Detencio), we can recognize as cash the following objects:

  • non-unified goods such as furs, salt, crops, metals by weight;
  • unified goods such as metals, orange juice, wood, meat;
  • precious metal (inc. gold) ingots of precise weight;
  • ordinary bills, quasi-money in cash form, such as State bonds, fund assets, which partially function as money etc.;
  • State banknotes (T-Notes) and coins;
  • notes emitted by private banks.

Each of the money forms, which constitute the notion of cash money, can be contrasted with its non-cash form, that is created by the placement of the given cash form into a special repository, in order to facilitate its circulation.

It is extremely important to underline this feature. It is the convenience of circulation, inherent to non-cash money forms, that makes a society transfer its cash forms into their non-cash equivalent, and only a crisis of public circulation may force a society to withdraw money from appropriate repositories, but only temporarily (!). At the same time, the non-cash form doesnt disappear as an entity, simply enough its object component is minimized, becoming a paper bank statement and a data object measuring 10 000 thousand silicon domains on a magnetic bearer in an appropriate repository (bank, depository).

The term money includes the following notions:

  • "commodity money";
  • "financial money";
  • "currency".

The first two notions have a limited circulation function, which is, however, sufficient to recognize its presence.

Each of these notion forms respectively has its own subforms, which can be classified on the basis of cash non-cash (see Table 5).


Classification of money forms on the basis of cash non-cash




Commodity money

non-unified goods furs, salt, crops, metals by weight


unified goods metals, orange juice, wood, meat

Non-cash contracts, taken account of by special electronic systems of commodity exchanges

precious metal (inc. gold) ingots of precise weight

Gold accounts in banks and specialized depositories such as Kitco

Credit money financial (with a limited function as a means of circulation)

Ordinary bills

Depo accounts in banks and Quasi-money specialized depositories.


Fund assets, partially functioning as money

Credit money currency

State banknotes (T-Notes)

Deposit money (cheque accounts)

Central Bank coins

Banknotes of private banks

It follows from Table 5 that, in particular, notes emitted by private banks, with their economic and legal content identical to currency, are mistakenly not referred by the Federal Law of 09.10.1992 3615-1 On currency regulation and currency control to the national currency of the Russian Federation.


  • the notion currency is a submultitude of the notion money;
  • notions State banknotes, Central Bank coins, notes of private banks are submultitudes of the notion currency, as well as the notion cash money;
  • the notion deposit money is a submultitude of the notion currency, as well as the notion non-cash money.


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